Thus, during this period more women began to write expressive poetry, novels, letters, and other types of literature. Most writers adhered to the flowery style and domestic genres deemed appropriate for women.
Feminist Criticism // Purdue Writing Lab
However, other women deviated from those social codes, employing the authoritative tone and direct style normally ascribed to men. Intended for a primarily female audience, the works of these authors tended to follow convention, instructing women in proper behavior. Even when they seemed to argue for female empowerment, the suggestions of proper women writers remained conservative.
These writers argued for more radical change and addressed both women and men using direct language. These women breached the gendered codes, addressing topics in philosophy, science, history, poetry, theology, and the classics—genres typically associated with men only. Kat Powell.
This site was made with the support of the University of Tennessee Department of English. By , several rules were current, each of which stated the spirit and discipline of monastic life in a different way. In time, communities observing the same rule found a shared identity as an order. For instance, instructions written by Augustine of Hippo — for a group of nuns in North Africa gained the status of a rule for the Augustinian order. In the fifth and sixth centuries, the founders of new houses often codified new rules, but these seldom extended far from their origins.
One remarkable exception is the rule devised by Benedict of Nursia ca.
Eight times a day, beginning in the darkness before dawn and concluding in the evening before bedtime, the monastic community is to meet in church for a liturgy called the Divine Office, drawn primarily from the Psalter, the collection of poetic songs traditionally ascribed to the biblical King David. Throughout the Middle Ages in western Europe, the language was Latin, and the office was chanted or sung, sometimes very elaborately.
The music of the office, the selection of psalms, and the inclusion of other material varied with the seasons and feasts of the liturgical year, articulating sacred time within every monastic community. Monks and nuns thus worked to secure their own salvation, but also through prayer to seek the salvation of others. Monastic life appealed to many in the Middle Ages, and as the number and wealth of monasteries increased, so did demand for buildings, books, and devotional objects.
Medieval monastic communities shaped the development of the arts by their patronage but also by their creativity and inventiveness, as innovations tried in one monastery often spread to other houses and into more general use. Monasticism posed a continual challenge for builders, for there was always a conviction that monastic life would flourish best in surroundings most conducive to it. The authors of the fifth- and sixth-century rules say little about the design and disposition of buildings, but later authorities devised careful instructions for the form and arrangement of monastic communities.
The ninth-century plan preserved at the abbey of Saint Gall in Switzerland, for example, depicts an ideal meant to inspire both emulation and devotion. As in this plan, each actual monastery had at its heart a church of adequate size to hold the whole community, ideally constructed of stone and proportioned for the most resonant acoustic.
Some monastic churches were intended only for the resident nuns or monks, but others had accommodations for visiting pilgrims or lay worshippers as well. Other spaces reserved for special functions typically adjoined the church. These include the refectory, where the monks or nuns assembled for meals The columns, arcades, and arched portals devised for these structures create architectural rhythms that seem to echo the ordered patterns of monastic life.
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In the early twelfth century, for instance, the great Benedictine abbey at Cluny constructed a church of astonishing size with imposing exterior towers and lavish interior ornament; the tightly packed buildings that fill a fragmentary frieze Bernard of Clairvaux — , principal founder of the Cistercian order, considered such decoration distracting as well as costly and improper. Cistercians thus insisted on the utmost simplicity in buildings, which are notable for their pure geometric proportions and deliberate avoidance of ornament. Elsewhere, monastic buildings were decorated with a lively mix of themes ranging from sacred subjects to depictions of rulers and donors Monastic needs and tastes proved as transformative for the arts of the book as for architecture in the Middle Ages, for monasteries required books for everyday use in the liturgy, at mealtimes and meetings, when books were read aloud, and for private prayer and meditation.
An array of liturgical texts , from the breviary, a compendium of texts for the Divine Office, to missals, gospels, antiphonaries, and graduals for the choir, was standard in monastic libraries, as were the books of the Bible and theological works by Saint Augustine, Gregory the Great, and other patristic writers.
Other books served the demands of particular religious orders: every Benedictine house, for instance, needed a copy of the rule that governed its existence, and the imposition of a standard liturgy by the Dominican order spurred the creation of illuminated choir books for its communities. Until the thirteenth century, medieval monks and nuns made most of these books themselves, preparing parchment, mixing inks, laboriously copying texts by hand, and painting exquisite images in the time allotted to work between the liturgical hours.
Medieval nuns, like the poet Hroswitha of Gandersheim died ca. In a monastic setting, the very exercise of producing a book became a means of meditation on scripture, and the embellishment of the text often highlights this fact: the complex ornament of an initial in a twelfth-century Bible, for instance, invites sustained contemplation Other illuminations connect the liturgical celebration of time with the events narrated in scripture; so an initial for a hymn text used on the feast of the Annunciation contains an image of the angel Gabriel greeting the Virgin Mary Musical notation, itself the invention of medieval monks, appears in manuscripts large enough for a whole choir to see Beyond books, many monasteries contained works of painting or sculpture intended to foster devotion.
A statue of the Virgin and Child from late thirteenth-century Spain had this function A religious house might commission such an image for itself, or a lay patron might offer one as a pious donation. He was a dedicated abolitionist and a strong practitioner of civil disobedience.
American author and illustrator James Thurber is best known for his contributions to "The New Yorker. British author Anthony Trollope is best known for his writing in the Victorian Era--some of his work includes a series of novels known as "The Chronicles of Barsetshire. British author and historian H. American poet and journalist Walt Whitman's verse collection "Leaves of Grass" is an American literature landmark.
Ralph Waldo Emerson praised the collection as "the most extraordinary piece of wit and wisdom" America had yet contributed. Dalloway" and "To the Lighthouse. Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist is a freelance writer and former professor of English and Rhetoric who wrote college-level Grammar and Composition textbooks.
Updated October 02, George Ade Susan B. Anthony Advice to Writers : "A terrible plague of insufferably artificial and affected authors" Business Letters : "As it stands now things are pretty black for the boy. There are five hundred thousand names, each with a corresponding telephone number.
Joseph Conrad Outside Literature : "A sea voyage would have done him good.http://derivid.route1.com/dicentra-corazn-sangrante.php
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But it was I who went to sea--this time bound to Calcutta. Frederick Douglass Du Bois Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others : "Mr. Washington represents in Negro thought the old attitude of adjustment and submission. Scott Fitzgerald What I Think and Feel at "The main thing is to be your own kind of a darn fool.
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